The United Nations Security Council has sanctioned rebel movements in Sierra Leone and Angola. He also imposed sanctions on the Liberian state for supporting the rebellion in Sierra Leone.
The purpose of this measure is to ban member countries of the United Nations from importing rough diamonds from Liberia. However, it concerns rough diamonds from Angola and Sierra Leone.
Despite the various sanctions applied, conflicts continue in areas of Sierra Leone.
Under the initiative of African diamond producing countries, sector and industry players have come together with civil society as part of the “Kimberley Process”. The latter aims to discuss a certification system for the international trade in rough diamonds.
On the one hand, the objective is to keep war diamonds away from armed conflict and, in a sense, to spare the legitimate market for rough diamonds. The latter indeed seems to constitute an essential economic pillar for the development of certain African countries. On the other hand, it will encourage the implementation of the EU program on conflict prevention.
The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme is an export and import control regime for rough diamonds.
Production and transportation of rough diamonds from mine to export will be controlled by producing countries.
Tamper-evident containers are provided for sealing ready-to-export rough diamonds, while a Kimberley Process certificate will be provided for each shipment.
The certificate system prohibits the importation of any cargo without a certificate from a country participating in the Kimberley Process. Likewise, shipments destined for countries not participating in the process are also affected.
Being directly concerned and for reasons linked to foreign and security policy, the Community was invited to participate in the Kimberley Process certification system. Indeed, it owns two of the largest rough diamond trade centers, which, like legitimate trade, are exposed to the effects of conflict diamonds.